Посттравматичен стрес – случай

stressКогато се преживее събитие заплашващо живота и здравето, реакцията не винаги е в момента на травмата. Вместо споменът от преживяното да отзвучи, той отново и отново се завръща. Прониква в сънищата, променя чувствата и поведението на жертвата. Всяко нещо, което напомня събитието, извиква силен страх. Животът вече не е същият.

Ваня е на 24 години.
Срещаме се в ранен есенен следобед, защото се страхува да излиза в тъмните часове на деня. Страхува се от нападение, от тъмнината, от смъртта. Имала следобеден ангажимент. Поколебала се. Как ще се прибере ако се стъмни? Ще има ли кой да я изпрати? Отказала се. Тогава ми позвъни за среща. Проблемите и започват преди година. Прибирала се сама към 10 вечерта . Докато отключва входа на блока, към нея бързо се приближава тъмна, мъжка фигура с качулка на главата. Блъска я и дърпа чантата и. Сковава я силен страх. Крещи, но не чува гласа си. Има само раздираща болка в гърлото. Мъжът се отдръпва и бързо се отдалечава. Ваня се качва до апартамента за минута, а и се струва че са минали часове.
Следващите седмици споменът от случката, уж започва да утихва, но се променя поведението и. Не излиза по тъмно. Мисли кой да я изпрати. Улавя се, че се взира в хората на улицата и търси „тъмният” силует. Вижда във всеки непознат мъж заплаха. Страхът не изчезва, той влиза в дома и. Прераства в ужас, когато трябва да загаси лампата или просто да затвори очи.

За лечението на посттравматичния стрес има различни подходи:
Медикаментозното лечение следва утвърдени схеми. То е фокусирано вьрху симптомите. Целта му е да се намали силата на страховите изживявания. Това обаче дава лъжливо усещане за контрол на страха. Лекарствата са само патерица.

Психотерапията е процес при който се създава екип: пациент и терапевт. След това се определят психическите особености, характера, телесната конструкция. Мобилизира се целия ресурс на личността, за да се справи със страховете си. Терапевта подбира подхода, който е подходящ за решаване на казуса.

В решаването на този случай водеща роля имаше психотерапевтичният метод на Визуализация. В действителност, всичко първо възниква в ума преди да се реализира. Нашият мозък не прави разлика между актуално преживяване, минало събитие или просто представа. Той реагира на всяко едно от тях емоционално и по един и същи начин. Визуализацията е подход, който използва тази способност на мозъка с лечебна цел. Тя ни дава възможност да се върнем в преживяното, да усетим чувството, реакциите на тялото отново и отново, докато избледнеят и събитието изгуби своята значимост. Чрез нея можем да накараме ума да превърне мъчителното преживяване просто в спомен. Въображението позволява да се изгради мисловен образ само на това, което може „на живо” да реализира.

Ето част от една терапевтична сесия:
- Сега си пред вратата на входа.
Чуваш забързаните стъпки.
Виждаш тъмната фигура.
Усещаш удара. Страха.
Задръж тази картина пред очите си . Картината на твоя страх.
Сега и позволи да избледнее бавно, бавно, като стара
фотография. Докато изчезне съвсем и престане да измъчва
ума и съзнанието ти, да контролира поведението ти.

Достатъчни бяха шест терапевтични сисии и Ваня предоля страховете си. От преживяното остана само спомен, горчив но просто спомен.

 

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